Energy effiency

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Often on the Internet you can see the following picture, with the statement that:"Any existing wireless transmission technology has the characteristics of range, speed and energy efficiency. And only 2 of the 3 can be met at the same time. LPWAN technology provides energy-efficient long-distance data transmission."

This picture raises the question: "Are GSM and LTE really not energy efficient? "
         There is clearly a mix of cost and efficiency here. Increasing the range always requires an increase in energy cost, which leads to a reduction in transmission speed at a fixed transmitter power. Increasing the bitrate twice at the same time lead to reducing twice the outdoor coverage area of the gateway. 
In LPWAN it is necessary to transmit information over long distances while being as energy efficient (battery operated) as possible - i.e. energy saving.  
LPWAN power efficiency means the efficiency of consuming battery power by an endpoint device to transmit a single message over a gateway distance. 

LPWAN power efficiency is provided by two key technical system parameters:
1.  The quality of the gateway receiver;
2.  The number of control bits per data message.        

The Shannon limit implies that the maximum communication range, other things being equal, is proportional to the energy of the information bit and independent of the modulation type. This means that by improving the characteristics of the radio link we can only approach the physical limit, but no more. The greater range of the LoRa transmitter is realized due to the slow transmission of information, and the type of its modulation only makes it technically easy to implement.
The second energy efficiency parameter depends on the radio protocol used, which should provide the minimum required share of the service information in each message.
LPWAN energy efficiency = good quality receiver + minimum transmission length.

To create an energy efficient LPWAN system the following are required:
  • A quality receiver that provides maximum sensitivity, noise immunity and dynamic range in real-world operating conditions;
  • A quality communication protocol that provides a minimum amount of service information per useful message.

If you do not provide the required quality of the gateway receiver, then to ensure the same communication range, you will have to increase the energy of the message in the air (increase the power or transmission time), which will reduce energy efficiency. 
When developing LPWAN protocols there is a battle for every extra bit in the information message field. The less service information, the shorter the message, the more energy efficient the radio protocol will be, and at the same time we should not forget about reliability and information security.

The energy efficiency of unlicensed LPWAN is provided by using the shortest possible messages, which has the following advantages:
- Increased range due to reduced transmission speed
- Longer battery life due to shorter on-air time
- Increased data throughput by reducing the message length
- Increased noise resistance of short messages
The GoodWAN protocol has been designed to ensure the highest possible energy efficiency with a range of operation that is obviously no worse as that of SigFox or LoRaWAN, and allows you to send at least twice as many useful information messages from the same battery.
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